Surgical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes surgery is a gastric sleeve surgery that has been performed on obese people for a long time. This operation is a practice performed to remove part of the stomach. It has been found that people who are overweight and have diabetes have diabetes after surgery. After this detection, research has been conducted for this area, and as a result of research, it is observed that foods passing through the end point of the small intestine increase, with the increase in this food transition, the secretion of GLP -1 hormone from cells called L cells also increases.
It was observed that with this increase in GLP-1, the number of cells present in insulin secretion also increased. It was observed that with this chain effect, insulin production increased and the amount of insulin needed by the body was met. In this way, the body does not need additional insulin from the outside due to the fact that it produces a level of insulin that can be self-sufficient. This also increases the quality of life of people, they also do not have to carry an injector with them or travel with an insulin pump attached to their body. In addition, organ losses that are likely to occur in the future are prevented.
Type 2 diabetes, which can usually occur at an old age due to excessive weight and insulin resistance, condemns the patient to the use of insulin for life and invites many important diseases. In patients with Type 2 diabetes, the pancreas secretes enough insulin, but cells cannot use this insulin. At the later stages of the disease, the pancreas cannot secrete enough insulin, and the body also becomes prone to many diseases.
Diabetes is a disease caused by sedentary life, an unbalanced diet, or genetic reasons. In Type 1 diabetes, there is no production of insulin, while in patients with Type 2 diabetes, there is production of insulin, but the patient cannot use insulin. That’s why blood sugar is always high. This, in turn, causes organ damage. The classic treatment for diabetes is about lowering blood sugar. Surgical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes is a method of treating the disease. This operation, called Metabolic Surgery, is an operation applied to patients with Type 2 diabetes. In this way, existing insulin begins to be used without problems. As a result, blood sugar levels end.
What is Surgical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes?
Metabolic Surgery, also known as diabetes surgery, involves operations that allow both diabetes and obesity to be controlled at the same time. Type II diabetes, in which insulin is produced in the body, but this insulin is ineffective, is usually associated with obesity. Insulin resistance is observed in Type II diabetes, which is observed in an average of 90% of those with diabetes worldwide.
In healthy people, a person feels hunger and eats with a hormone released from the stomach. As a result of the stimulation to the brain, when the stomach wall is stretched with the food it eats, the stomach stops releasing hormones and the person begins to satiate. At this time, Foods pass into the intestines and begin to be digested and absorbed. In healthy people, undigested foods can easily reach the last parts of the small intestine. Undigested foods cause the secretion of the hormone glp-1 from here. In this hormone, more active insulin is released from the pancreas and blood sugar is controlled. But obese people have a larger stomach, and hunger hormone secretion is greater. These people grow their portions to be full, or have to eat more often.
In addition, obese people’s bowel size and the number of villi that provide food absorption increases even more. In this way, undigested food cannot reach the last part of the small intestine, and the hormone glp-1 cannot be activated, as a result, blood sugar begins to rise, since insulin in the pancreas cannot be actively released. Blood sugar levels increase excessively in patients due to the effect of insulin resistance. As a result, diabetes begins.
Surgical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes is applied only to patients with Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes surgery is not applied to all type 2 diabetics. Because the important thing is that the pancreas ‘ capacity to produce insulin is preserved. Patients are selected by evaluating these reserves. Diabetes surgery is successfully applied to patients where reserves are preserved.
How is Surgical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes performed?
Surgical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes can be applied by various methods that vary depending on the patient’s condition. If the patient is overweight, bariatric surgery is preferred instead of Metabolic Surgery. If it is believed that diabetes is the basis of all metabolic problems, one of the ileal interposition or transit bipartisan operations is selected. The methods of both methods are similar, but the mechanisms of action are different. In ileal interposition surgery, the contact of the intestinal part with food, which increases insulin secretion, is pulled forward. The part that suppresses the hormone insulin is transferred to the end of the intestines. In this method, it is possible to talk about a more effective absorption degradation process. In addition, contact of various pancreatic and bile fluids with food is also delayed, as part of the twelve finger intestine is left out. In Transit bipartisan surgery, the flow chart of the intestine is changed rather than the absorption of food. By creating two different ways, food is digested much faster. This both increases insulin secretion and does not reveal vitamin – mineral deficiencies.
In order for Surgical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes to work, the patient’s pancreas must necessarily produce “insulin”, because metabolic surgeries are operations that allow the use of insulin that is actually present in the body but cannot be used in some way. If there is no insulin in the body, these operations will not work. A person’s insulin reserves can be understood by some studies. In this way, it can be understood as a result of examinations whether you are suitable for surgery.
How does metabolic surgery work?
All metabolic surgeries are performed by the laparoscopic method. A large incision is not made in the patient, the operation is completed with instruments inserted through 4 or 5 holes. The duration of the operation varies from 1 to 3 hours depending on the method to be used. The general goal of metabolic surgery operations is to achieve that food in the digestive tract reaches the last part of the small intestine at an earlier time thanks to bile and pancreatic fluids. Thus, GLP-1, which are hormones secreted from the small intestine during the period when the food is in the middle digestive tract, balances the rate of glucagon by secreting more insulin from the pancreas under the influence of hormones such as PPY.
What are the risks of Surgical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes?
How far type 2 diabetes progresses and how much damage it causes should be well evaluated. For this, the doctor should know the patient’s story well and read his condition well. Together with his team, he should analyze the necessary tests and examinations well and decide on the operation accordingly. Type 2 diabetes has a lot of metabolic problems. As a team, they are discussed with their risks and the operation is decided by making an evaluation according to them. As with all other surgical methods, the method is applied as a last resort in diabetes operations. But since there are many conditions at the point of ensuring favorable conditions, it is not possible for each patient to fully adapt to both ileal interposition and transit bipartisanship. Because it is possible to calculate the benefit obtained by the operation in advance, people with certain conditions are not admitted to the operation.
The reason for this is that the benefit obtained by the operation is not sufficient for these people. Surgical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes is a serious operation performed on the stomach and small intestine with a risk of death below 1%. But obesity and diabetes, and a lot of severe diseases that they bring with them, and the risk of harm and death that all this can cause to a person is greater than the risk of this operation. Surgical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes has a risk to the extent that ordinary digestive system surgery has.
First, as with every operation given narcosis, narcosis can have some negative effects in diabetes surgery. In addition, although it is rare, problems such as infection, abscess formation and infiltration can also occur. But it is useful to underline that these risks cover only 2%, and this is a low rate for surgical operations. In addition, it is known that these risks are reduced every day, given the operations applied today, when medical technology is rapidly developing. Because diabetes surgery is defined as the most advanced application of developing medicine. Because diabetes is a complex and personalized disease.
In this regard, all the values of the patient differ to a degree that is incomparable to another patient. All values of the patient who has decided to have diabetes surgery are monitored and controlled in detail for a certain period of time. In the light of these data, all risks and disadvantages that may arise during surgery are calculated by the doctor and are preliminary. Because of this, the possible risks of diabetes surgery are minimized and often experienced at a minimum level.
How much does it cost to treat type 2 diabetes?
Reasons why diabetes surgery is costly; special equipment used in this high-tech operation is expensive and after the operation, the patient must be hospitalized for a long time, including intensive care for 1 day. Diabetes surgery, a metabolic surgery, is a treatment that can regulate the functions of all the patient’s organs and completely improve the quality of life, so it should not be surprising that its cost is also high. Because Type 2 diabetes negatively affects all the organs and life of the patient. So much so that the untreated type2 diabetes patient; it brings vital risks such as heart attack, stroke, kidney failure, and life connected to a dialysis machine
Why Turkey should be preferred for Surgical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes?
Turkey is one of the countries with the most reliable and many alternatives for Surgical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. Experienced surgeons, appropriate treatment methods, equipped hospitals and, of course, economical treatment prices are effective reasons for choosing Turkey.